Optimal baseline exploitation in vertical dark-matter detectors based on atom interferometry

authored by
Fabio Di Pumpo, Alexander Friedrich, Enno Giese

Several terrestrial detectors for gravitational waves and dark matter based on long-baseline atom interferometry are currently in the final planning stages or already under construction. These upcoming vertical sensors are inherently subject to gravity and thus feature gradiometer or multi-gradiometer configurations using single-photon transitions for large momentum transfer. While there has been significant progress on optimizing these experiments against detrimental noise sources and for deployment at their projected sites, finding optimal configurations that make the best use of the available resources is still an open issue. Even more, the fundamental limit of the device's sensitivity is still missing. Here, we fill this gap and show that (a) resonant-mode detectors based on multi-diamond fountain gradiometers achieve the optimal, shot-noise limited, sensitivity if their height constitutes 20% of the available baseline; (b) this limit is independent of the dark matter oscillation frequency; and (c) doubling the baseline decreases the ultimate measurement uncertainty by approximately 65%. Moreover, we propose a multi-diamond scheme with less mirror pulses where the leading-order gravitational phase contribution is suppressed and compare it to established geometries and demonstrate that both configurations saturate the same fundamental limit.

Institute of Quantum Optics
External Organisation(s)
Ulm University
Technische Universität Darmstadt
AVS Quantum Science
No. of pages
Publication date
Publication status
Peer reviewed
ASJC Scopus subject areas
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics, Condensed Matter Physics, Computer Networks and Communications, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Computational Theory and Mathematics, Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic version(s)
https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2309.04207 (Access: Open)
https://doi.org/10.1116/5.0175683 (Access: Open)